Overview/Case Study: Validating FIPS 140-2 Security in PIV Credential Cryptographic Modules (E14a) Electrical Engineer by schooling, Master Programmer by trade and Cryptographer by choice. 32+ years as a programmer, the last 15 years as a chief architect, led me to see that cryptography and other forms of secure program development are essential for our society. In my tenure at TecSec, Inc. I have written multiple NIAP Security Targets and successfully completed dozens of certifications including FIPS 140 and FIPS 201 for software solutions as well as embedded system hardware (Smart Cards, …).