Terence Spies, Chief Technologist, HP Security Voltage. Defending against data breaches and complying with regulations like GDPR is driving demand for new cipher methods. Traditional ciphering techniques are built for fast encryption of large data stream. Encrypting stored data, especially at the field level, requires a completely different model: how can we encrypt very small pieces of data (credit card numbers, IP addresses, tax IDs) and still maintain security and efficiency. The NIST FFX standard specifies one way of doing this, but interesting questions remain around the encryption of very small items. This talk will look at why small ciphers are important in modern applications, standards for data-level encryption, and new research results that examine how strong ciphers can be when working with very small data items.